Biotechnology today is developing at a rapid pace. As a science, it studies the introduction of production processes based on the practical use of microorganisms, all kinds of biological systems. These are not only plant or animal tissues, but also protoplasts, recombinant DNA and fully genetically modified organisms.

Biotechnology in modern medicine

Biotechnology, as a science, proved itself in the late twentieth century, namely in the early 1970s. It all started with genetic engineering, when scientists were able to transfer genetic material from one organism to another without performing sexual processes. This was done using recombinant DNA or rDNA. This method is used to modify or improve a particular organism.

Medical biotechnology refers to such production processes in the course of which bioobjects or substances for medical purposes are created. These are enzymes, vitamins, antibiotics, individual microbial polysaccharides, which can be used as stand-alone remedies or as auxiliary substances in the creation of various dosage forms, amino acids.

Medical genetics in the future will be able not only to prevent the birth of inferior children by diagnosing genetic diseases, but also to perform gene transplantation to address the existing problem.

Biotechnology in modern science

Biotechnology in modern science has enormous benefits. The discovery of genetic engineering has made it possible to develop new varieties of plants and animal breeds that will benefit agriculture.

The study of biotechnology is not only linked to the sciences of biotechnology. In microelectronics, ion-selective transistors based on field effect (HpaI) have been developed. Biotechnology is needed to increase oil recovery.

The most developed direction is the use of biotechnology in ecology for industrial and domestic wastewater treatment. Many other disciplines have contributed to the development of biotechnology, which is why biotechnology should be regarded as an integrated science.

Main typical technological methods of modern biotechnology

Biotechnology can be distinguished not only as a science, but also as a sphere of practical human activity, which is responsible for the production of different types of products with the participation of living organisms or their cells.

Theoretical basis for biotechnology in its time was such a science as genetics, it happened in the twentieth century. But practically biotechnology was based on the microbiological industry. The microbiological industry, in turn, received a strong boost from the discovery and active production of antibiotics.

Visible biotechnology: Genetic and cellular engineering

Genetic and cellular engineering combined with biochemistry are the main areas of modern biotechnology.

Cellular engineering – growing under special conditions of cells of different living organisms (plants, animals, bacteria), various kinds of research on them (combination, extraction or transplantation).

Cellular engineering of plants is considered the most successful. With the help of cellular engineering of plants it became possible to accelerate the breeding processes, which allows to breed new varieties of agricultural crops.

Genetic (or genetic) engineering – molecular biology department, where genes are studied and isolated from living organisms’ cells, after which they are manipulated to achieve a certain goal. The main tools used in genetic engineering are enzymes and vectors.

Cloning biotechnology

Cloning is the process of obtaining clones (i.e. descendants of fully identical prototypes). The first cloning experience was carried out on plants that had been cloned vegetatively. Each individual plant that resulted from cloning was called a clone.

In the process of genetic development, this term began to be applied not only to plants, but also to the genetic excretion of bacteria.

As early as the end of the twentieth century, scientists began to actively discuss human cloning. Thus, the term “clone” began to be used in mass media, and later in literature and art.

Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering is the artificial change in the genotype of a microorganism caused by human intervention to produce cultures with the necessary qualities.

Genetic engineering is engaged in research and study not only of microorganisms but also of humans, actively studying diseases related to the immune system and oncology.

History of biotechnology development

Deeply in ancient times, biotechnology was developed empirically: baking bread, making wine, cheese-making, silage feed for livestock – all these are different microbiological processes, for which centuries have been observed.

Real genetic engineering, biotechnology, as a modern kind of science, began to develop only in the middle of the last century.

The main stages and periods of biotechnology development
The history of biotechnology development is conventionally divided into three consecutive stages. The first is the development of biotechnology in terms of historical aspect.

During excavations of ancient settlements in Mesopotamia, Egypt as well as Greece, the remains of large and small bakeries and breweries were found. It is known that the Sumerians already knew how to make beer, and its range was quite wide.

In Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire winemaking and cheese production were actively developed. Flax fiber was also produced; this process involves microscopic mushrooms and bacteria.

At the end of the nineteenth century the development of biotechnology entered the second stage, it began to develop as a science. The first geneticists, microbiologists and virologists appeared. At the beginning of the last century, primary methane production plants were established.

Waste from agricultural production was transformed into biological gas and organic fertilizer. In the middle of the twentieth century began to produce antibiotics, as a consequence, there were enterprises that with the help of microorganisms not only amino acids and vitamins, but also organic acids and enzymes.

At the end of the twentieth century, genetic and cellular engineering developed, marking the third stage of biotechnology development. The actual “birthday” of this kind of modern science is considered to be 1972, the year of creation of the first hybrid DNA, in which foreign genes were embedded.

So, biotechnology, as a constantly and dynamically developing science, covers several large periods. The first is the late 19th and early 20th century.

It was a time of first great achievements, such as the discovery of protein structure or the use of viruses in the study of cellular genetics. In the second period biotechnology was formed as a scientific and technical branch, already producing preparations.

Cellular biotechnology of plants

Cellular biotechnology is based on the use of cells, tissues and protoplasts. In order to successfully manage cells, it is necessary to separate them from the plant and create all the necessary conditions for their successful existence and reproduction outside the plant organism. This method of cell growth and multiplication is called “isolated tissue culture” and has gained special importance due to its application in biotechnology.

Biotechnology in the modern world and human life

The potential that biotechnology offers to humans is great not only in basic science, but also in other fields of activity and knowledge. By using biotechnological methods it became possible to mass produce all necessary proteins.

The processes of obtaining fermentation products have become much simpler. In the future biotechnologies will allow improving animals and plants. Scientists are considering options to combat inherited diseases through genetic engineering.

Genetic engineering, as the main direction in biotechnology, significantly accelerates the solution of food, agricultural, energy and environmental crises.

Biotechnology has the greatest impact on medicine and pharmaceuticals. It is predicted that in the future it will be possible to diagnose and treat those diseases that have the status of “incurable”.